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Foderautomater til fasaner og agerhøns.

DuckTube til Ænder.


FoderTønden

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Fodring og udsætning af ænder.

Posted on January 17, 2021 at 11:10 AM

Udsætning og fodring af ænder.

Udsætning og fodring af ænder er ofte genstand for kritik, fordi der sker en tilførsel af næringsstoffer til søen. Desværre ses det også, at

udsætningsmetoderne ikke sikrer, at de udsatte ænder får en naturlig adfærd.

Begge dele kan der dog rettes op på ved den rette udsætning og fodring.


NATUR/VILDTPLEJE:

Mange søer er alene blevet etableret,

fordi der har været et ønske om bedre jagtmuligheder på vandfugle. En af måderne at sikre gode jagtmuligheder i søer er at udsætte ænder.

Udsætning af ænder er forholdsvis enkelt sammenlignet med udsætning af fasaner og agerhøns. Ællingerne er meget robuste og kan hurtigt

klare sig selv.


Udsætningsstedet:

Det ideelle udsætningssted for ænder er en sø med fladvandede områder, flade søbredder og vegetation, der giver dækning. Størrelsen er ikke

afgørende, men lovgivningen sætter en øvre grænse for udsætning på maks. én ælling pr. 150 m² eller én voksen and pr. 300 m² åben, ubevokset

vandflade.

I tilknytning til søen skal der være dækning i form af rørskov, pileskov eller lignende, som kan yde god dækning. Endelig vil en eller flere øer være

gode, så ællingerne kan søge dækning for eksempelvis ræv.


Alder på ællinger:

Ællingerne skal sættes ud, når de er to-tre uger gamle. Jo tidligere de bliver sat ud, des vildere bliver de, og det ønsker vi. Samtidig knyttes de

stærkere til udsætningsstedet, hvilket sidenhen byder på den optimale jagt.


Tidspunkt:

Ællingerne skal sættes ud senest en måned, inden jagten går ind. Med den nuværende lovgivning betyder det inden 1. august, og rent faktisk sættes

de fleste ællinger ud i maj og juni. Vejret skal helst være godt – tørt og gerne solskin.

En periode med godt vejr er værd at vente på. Det kan anbefales at sætte ællingerne ud tidligt om morgenen, så de har mange lyse timer til at vænne

sig til deres nye levested.


Fodring:

Fodring af udsætte ællinger skal ske uset, så ænderne ikke vænner sig til mennesker. Der fodres med kraftfoder i starten, hvor ællingerne behøver

mange næringsstoffer. Byg er den bedste kornsort at fodre ællinger med, fordi det indeholder mere protein end eksempelvis hvede.

Fodringen skal ske på jorden ved søen eller via en foderautomat i umiddelbar nærhed af udsætningsstedet. Ællingerne må endelig ikke mangle foder.

Så er der risiko for, at de forlader søen.

Der skal med jævne mellemrum lægges kråseflint ud. Det gøres ved at smide en skovlfuld grus eller sand på jorden ved siden af foderpladsen.


Fodring med mindst mulig forurening:

Ænder er forholdsvis nemme at fodre. Fodring til trækjagt skal helst ske dagligt, så ænderne æder foderet helt op, inden de får nyt. Ved udsætning er

det en god idé at fodre med lange mellemrum (en gang om ugen) og h.elst uset. Så får ænderne en mere naturlig adfærd i form af skyhed over

for mennesker.

Byg, hvede, havre og raps er velegnet foder til vildænder.

Specifikt til krikænder kan raps, knækkede kerner, havre og græsfrø fra eksempelvis rød svingel anbefales. Græsfrø flyder oven på vandet og er

derfor særligt velegnede til vildænder, især pibeænder og krikænder.

Ællinger på to til tre uger skal have kraftfoder, som i de efterfølgende to til fire uger suppleres med byg eller hvede.

Dette supplement udgør derefter foderet.

Ingen lovgivning forbyder udsætning eller fodring

Der er ikke lovgivning, som direkte forbyder fodring og udsætning af ænder i nyetablerede søer, men fodring og udsætning af ænder påvirker

vandkvaliteten i en sø. Men nogle kommuner har den praksis, at de opsætter betingelser om, at der ikke må udsættes eller fodres ænder i eller i

nærheden af søen.

Mange ænder tilfører søen unaturligt meget næringsstof, som kan resultere i dårlig vandkvalitet. Det er især det kvælstof og fosfor, som ænderne

afleverer i form af gødning, der påvirker vandkvaliteten. Dermed påvirker ænderne søens øvrige dyre- og planteliv, fordi søer med dårlig vandkvalitet

forhindrer mange arter i at leve i søen.

Når en sø er etableret, bliver den efter kort tid omfattet af Lov om naturbeskyttelse. Derfor vil pleje af søen afhænge af den tilladelse, der blev givet

ved etableringen. Skal søen plejes ud over, hvad der kan betegnes som almindelige pleje, kræver det dispensation – også selv om det ikke ændrer

ved naturtilstanden.


Omfang af udsætning:

Ifølge en undersøgelse fra DCE (daværende DMU) sættes der cirka 400.000 gråænder ud med jagt som formål i Danmark. Udsætningerne sker over

hele landet, men med en hovedvægt på øerne og i Øst- og Midtjylland. I beskedne 1-2 procent af landets 116.000 søer bliver der sat gråænder ud.

Hovedparten af udsætningerne sker i søer på 1-10 hektar, og på landsplan sættes der ænder ud i 25-40 procent af søer med denne størrelse.

Gennemsnitligt sættes der 300 ællinger ud pr. sø. Syv procent af udsætningerne er på 1.000 ællinger eller flere.

25 procent af udsætningerne er på færre end 50 ællinger.

Formålet med undersøgelsen var først og fremmest at belyse, om udsætning af gråænder påvirker søernes indhold af næringsstoffer. Der blev

udelukkende målt på fosfor, da det anses for at være det næringsstof, der volder flest problemer for vandkvaliteten i form af algevækst.

For at vurdere behovet for at begrænse påvirkningen blev koncentrationerne af fosfor i 143 søer – 68 med og 75 uden udsætning – målt i 2007.

Derudover blev der indhentet oplysninger om leverancer af i alt ca. 120.000 gråænder til udsætning fra tre større opdræt.

Fosforkoncentrationerne var klart højere (0,52 mg TP/l) i søer med udsætning end i søer uden (0,30 mg TP/l). Der kunne dog ikke påvises nogen

sammenhæng mellem koncentration og udsætningstæthed. Årsagen er en stor variation i

koncentrationerne af fosfor, stammende fra både andre fosforkilder og tidligere tilførsler, der er ophobet i søernes bundlag. Disse resultater giver

derfor ikke nogen mulighed for en generel vurdering af 150 kvadratmeter-reglens effekt.

Konklusionen påpeger derimod behov for at nuancere den gældende regel, som tillader udsætning i alle ferske vande. Sagen er nemlig den, at visse

næringsfattige søtyper er særligt sårbare for tilførsel af næringsstoffer, og i andre søer forekommer for eksempel sjældne eller rødlistede

dyre- og plantearter. Udsætning af ænder i denne typer søer vil – uanset tætheden – medføre en risiko for biologisk uhensigtsmæssige påvirkninger.

Udsættes der ænder i søer, som ikke har til- eller afgang, er udvaskningen begrænset. Det samme gælder den miljømæssige påvirkning af andet end

netop den del af søbredden, hvor ænderne sættes ud. Næppe målbar påvirkning af vandkvalitet Fodring og udsætning af ænder påvirker

vandkvaliteten i en sø.

Men af førnævnte undersøgelse fra DCE fremgår det, at påvirkningen ved udsætning af ænder er langt mindre end hidtil antaget, og at der ikke

umiddelbart kan påvises et reelt problem.

Det skal især ses i lyset af de restriktioner, der er indført for udsætning af ænder i søer. De sætter nemlig en grænse, afhængig af vandarealet, for,

hvor mange ænder der må sættes ud i en given sø. igennem tiden har udsætningen af ænder været genstand for kritik, fordi det blev anset for at

forurene vandmiljøet med næringsstoffer. Det har det ganske givet også gjort nogle steder, og det vil fortsat ske, hvis ikke udsætningen sker med

omtanke.

Undersøgelsens resultater og konklusioner er dog ikke entydige. Der kan spores en effekt af udsætning, men i nogle søer har man ikke kunnet

konstatere stigninger, som kan tillægges udsætning. Således viste undersøgelsen sæsonvariationer i næringsstofindholdet, som tilskrives den

frigørelse af fosfor, der er til stede i alle søers bundlag. Den målte forskel af fosforkoncentrationer i søer med og uden udsætning kan formentlig

primært tillægges tidligere udsætning af ænder, som har resulteret i fosforoplagring. Dermed bliver det sandsynligt, at udsætningens betydning

for mængden af næringsstof i forsøgsåret (2007) næppe er målbar. Det understøtter, at den gældende regel om maksimalt én ælling pr. 150

kvadratmeter er tilstrækkelig set ud fra en vurdering af næringsstoffer.


Flyvetræning:

Inden ænderne jages, skal man sikre sig, at de kan flyve. Hvis de ikke selv har vildtadfærd, skal de flyvetrænes, så man er sikker på, de kan flyve

tilfredsstillende. Normalt vil ællingerne være udvoksede og jagtbare, når de er 12-13 uger. Der kan dog være forskel på, hvor hurtigt ænder udvikler

sig: Er de udsat i en klar sø med god vandkvalitet, går det stærkere, end hvis de er udsat i en sur mosesø.

Inden flyvetræningen skal ænderne være sultne. Umiddelbart efter skal de til gengæld fodres godt.

Selve flyvetræningen foregår ved at presse ænderne forsigtigt op i den ene ende af søen. Det gøres ved at gå langs søkanten. Ænderne bliver

opmærksomme, lidt nervøse og svømmer op i søens ene ende, hvor de samles. Så springer man frem som trold af en æske, råber og klapper i

hænderne. Nu skal de helst flyve ud af hullet og flyve lidt rundt i cirkler for derefter at vende tilbage til søen. Hvis de ikke flyver, skal fodermængden

reduceres et par dage, og man kan så prøve igen.

Forudsætningen for, at udsætning af ænder resulterer i gode jagtoplevelser, er, at ænderne har en naturlig adfærd, når de skal jages. Kun derved

sikrer vi bevaring af andeudsætning som en del af dansk jagtkultur.

Knæk og bræk!

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